I’ll always remember your wonderful southern cooking, your strong faith, and your gentle nature. Thank you for cherishing me. You’ll be missed, Grandma.


(Learning things)

English is a Proto-Indo-European language, which is to say that it belongs to one segment of an entire linguistic framework upon which culture, communication, and commerce have occurred simultaneously throughout history. English is considered a Germanic language, though it does have some overlap with other language families, namely Latin and French. The history is broken down into four major periods: Old English (450-1100), Middle English (1100-1500), Early Modern English (1500-1800), and Late Modern English (1800-present). As the result of a long historical process, there are significant differences between the first and last periods. 

Originally, a Germanic tribe from Northern Germany called the Angles spoke a language called Englisc. The Angles, along with the other Germanic tribes, the Saxons and the Jutes, invaded England, in other words the roots of English are Anglo-Saxon and it was derived from Denmark and Germany. After this invasion Englisc evolved into Old English and then Vikings from Norway, Sweden and Denmark invaded England as well. This movement introduced new Icelandic words into Old English and by 1100 Old English had evolved into Middle English.

The development of the language we speak today was also influenced by the invasion of another tribe, the Normans of France. French became the language of Britain as this was the language everyone with money spoke, and as a result English was relegated to the peasantry. It is for this reason that a significant portion of English spoken today, 29 percent, is French-derived—notably in suffixes.

Early Modern English (1500-1800) was the next phase. A couple of significant things happened to the language in this era. Maybe most significantly, as any formal student of history can tell you, the impact of printing press technology in the 1400s disseminated knowledge to more and more people through increased literacy. The other main change to the language happened through what is known as the Great Vowel Shift. This shift took place over several hundred years. In the end, vowels were shortened and English began to sound more like what we know today. Not only this, but the Greek and Latin renaissances contributed to yet another twenty-nine percent of the language we speak today. This is not an exhaustive account of the influence of other languages on Early Modern English.

The final phase is called Late Modern English (1800-present). In this phase we can see the split into British English and American English, the introduction of technological, scientific and industrial vernacular, and the influence of Native American language as well as words from Spanish settlements in America. As a result of British colonization English spreads globally.

It was during and after the postwar formation of the United Nations that English started to really become a global language. I would argue that colonization and globalization were the two most important factors in the process. The British Empire colonized so many parts of the planet, which in turn meant that the colonized needed to learn the language of the government and financial institutions. The language began to be viewed as upwardly mobile. Lastly, American media, entertainment and eventually the Internet spread the culture and the language worldwide resulting in the status of English as a global language.


Brown, K. (2009). Concise Encyclopedia of Pragmatics, Second Edition (COPE).  Oxford, UK: Elsevier Ltd.

Howson, P. (2013) The English Effect. British Council. Retrieved from https://www.britishcouncil.org/sites/default/files/english-effect-report-v2.pdf

Mufwene, Salikoko Sangol. “Lingua Franca.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 12 Aug. 2010, www.britannica.com/topic/lingua-franca.

The History of English – English as a Global Language, www.thehistoryofenglish.com/issues_global.html.

Watson, James L. “Cultural Globalization.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 17 Mar. 2017, www.britannica.com/science/cultural-globalization.

“The History of English I & II – International TEFL Academy.” YouTube, 8 Dec. 2016, youtu.be/-EKYEtMXClY.

“The History of English III & IV – International TEFL Academy.” YouTube, 8 Dec. 2016, youtu.be/5TTuRLIbQ_8.



Autonomous Learning

In the context of a student-centered classroom.


Where in the World

¨Instruction begins when you, the teacher, learn from the learner; put yourself in his place so that you may understand […] what he learns and the way he understands it.¨ -Soren Kierkegaard

Cable Cars

Missing this view and my mock students.

Sarah Moon, “Fashion 11, Yohji Yamamoto”, 1996

녹색 (green)

주황색 (orange)

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